PROTECTIONPROGRAM FORWATER RESOURCES,WATER QUALITYAND
THE ECOLOGICAL STATUS
OF THE BISTRICA
PROTECTION AND RECULTIVATION OF THE BISTRICA RIVER
DYNAMICS OF REALISATION
Protection of the Bistrica River is stipulated by the Laws on watersand environment protection and it should enable harmless use of water,protection of people's health, animals and plants as well as environment.
Protection of waters is also influenced by public opinion both in ourcountry and abroad, since in an ecology era it is impossible to imaginesuch pollution which will degrade the quality and the natural appearanceof water and cause the biological disbalance in the hydrosphere.
In our country protection of water is gaining its ethics dimension whichcalls for protection and preservation of natural resources in order topass them on to future generations. The Bistrica River is, literally speaking,a jewel of nature in the intact parts of our country. It winds throughthe beautiful canyons and valleys, the stony areas and small clearings,and together with the dense rich vegetation makes this region unique. Thesefacts speak for themselves and call for the special protection within thenatural complex of the Bistrica River. Preservation of water quality isalso essential, since this river is a potential supplier of drinking waterfor the downstream towns and villages. We would like to add that this regionis great for the development of modern tourist activities (mountaineeringand both short and long holidays), which all ask for a clean unpollutedriver.
An autochtonous region like this demands an autochtonous river whichmust not lose its authentic geographic, hydrographic and ecological features.
The Protection Program for Bistrica River must include all these aspectsin order to isolate the present problems, investigate their extent andcauses and find methods and ways to solve them.
- description of the region from the mouth to the source of the Bistrica,
- description of the morphological features of the region,
- the features of the morphological shapes,
- surfaces (their features),
- the surface of the river basin,
- the number of the permanent tributaries,
- the number of the ravines,
- the surface of the wooded area,
- pastures, orchards and cultivable land,
- towns and villages,
- the type of settlements,
- population (according to all the post-war censuses up to 1991),
- live stock (pigs, cattle, sheep, poultry) in individual households.
- Description of the river features: surce, origin, amount of water,large towns in the basin, floods, navigability, low water levels, the featuresof the river basin, the features of the river,
- the features of accumulation: length, width, amount of water, waterconsumption.
- analysis of rainfall, quantity, time, duration, dynamics,
- water level variations (according to available data),
- speed of the river course in some parts,
- speed of some tributary courses,
- possible drifts,
- traction power,
- influence on accumulation.
- geological structure of the soil,
- types of the soil,
- features of the humus,
- presence of heavy metals in the soil,
- pesticides use,
- use of natural and artificial fertilisers.
- assessment of the natural features of the Bistrica River accordingto the data gathered before the river was polluted, that is before therelease of waste waters,
- assessment of the present data according to the quality of waterduring the release of waste waters,
- assessment of the state of the Bistrica water,
- expected pollution tendencies.
- detecting pollution sources (picture 1):
individual pollution sources (picture 2),
natural washing away of humus and other materials,
- location of pollutants:
type of the pollution,
extent of pollution on a daily, season and yearly basis,
- For each pollutant separate research should be done in order to define:the location of pollutant; the branch of industry; address; ownership;the place where waste materials (waters) are released; the amount of wastematerials; the release time; waste water treatment plants - filtering devices,type of filtering devices; efficiency of filters; when filters functionand when they are out of order.
- assessment of the quality of waste waters according to the currentmeasurements stipulated by the law.
PICTURE 2. A new house in the village of Recani, conectedto the water supply system. The sewage waters from the houses go into thecanal (an pen collector) and then into the Bistrica River. There is a drytoilet (with no flushing) next to the canal. Rain and snow carry the pollutedwaters into the Bistrica.
Farms (picture 3):
- location; distance from the river; a separate list of the number ofpigs, cattle, sheep and poultry for each farm,
- type of waste waters release at different farms,
- presence of waste water treatment plants and their type,
- outline of the waste waters release projects and systems with possiblesuggestions for their improvement.
PICTURE 3. Musnikovo settlement. The stables nearthe Bistrica River bank.
- Location: distance from the river, a special description of the slaughterhouse,the number and breed of slaughtered animals during a fixed period of time(daily, weekly, monthly, season dynamics of slaughtering and the averageper year), the minimum vs. maximum time of keeping animals prior to slaughter,waste waters release systems from farms,
- special stables designed for diseased cattle and waste waters releasesystems in this case,
- amount of necessary water,
- the actual amount of water used for slaughter and slaughterhouse maintenance,
- origin of water and its quality.
- Waste waters:
amount, features, release dynamics, waste water treatment plants, outlineof a project, type, efficiency, functioning,
- assessment of waste waters features according to available data,
- assessment of the extent of pollution of the Bistrica River.
- number of sewage systems in the Bistrica basin (picture 4),
- separate sewage systems: rain or sanitary,
- combined sewage systems,
- industrial waste waters,
- number of inhabitants in a settlement,
- percentage of households which use the sewage system of a settlement,
- sewage waters release into the river with or without waste watertreatment plants,
- biological filtering,
- active mud,
- dripping-type filter,
- other systems and their description,
- outline of the project,
- assessment of the project,
- the degree of filtering,
- assessment of the amount of sewage water the Bistrica can take atrelease points,
- assessment of the overall system of waste water treatment plants,
- rain sewage (if it is separated),
- the surface and amount of sewage covered by this system,
- results of waste waters analysis.
PICTURE 4. The village of Musnikovo is the closestto the bank of the Bistrica River of all the places in its basin. In itthere are many newly - built houses whose sewage goes directly into theBistrica River.
PICTURE 5. The illegal waste despsal in Recani onthe bank of the Bistrica River. On the opposite bank there is an illegallyparked motor vehicle.
- the distance from the banks of the Bistrica River (in meters) (picture5),
- their location.
- Influence on the Bistrica:
- macro - pollution,
- evident pollution of the Bistrica,
- pollution from navigable waters,
- pollution from atmospheric waters,
- pollution from filtered waters.
According to the available analysis of the Bistrica water, the waterclassification should include:
- assessment of certain parameters,
- exceptions and their causes,
- extent of the pollution of the river basin,
- extent of pollution of the Bistrica itself, i.e. its banks and riverbed,
- assessment of possible regeneration.